Thursday, May 21, 2020
Writing, along with reading, speaking, and listening are intricate and constructive processes that require the synchronization of complex cognitive skills. At the core, writing is a process of communicating purposeful thoughts and ideas in a variety of forms for a multitude of purposes. Writing provides learners with tools for discovering, for shaping meaning, and for reaching understanding through written expression. In reflecting on my experiences as an educator and studies in literacy pedagogies, learning to write is a tool for thinking. Writing and literacy development are authentic and purposeful processes. Writing requires an intrinsic motivation and instruction should be organized in such a way that students not only learn to write but understand the importance of being able to communicate in written form both in and out of the academic setting. It is vital for educators to allow for opportunities for students to make connections and identify writing as a vital part of their life. Why do we teach students to use written language to express their thoughts and opinions? Why do we teach students to use written language to inform or to explain to a specific audience. Why do we teach students to persuade or to creatively express their thinking? We use these forms of writing to teach students that written communication is power. In a students formative years of education, written expression provides the power to learn, the power to communicate, the power to respond,Show MoreRelatedImportance Of Writing, Speaking And Listening On International Business Communication948 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesImportance Of Writing, Speaking And Listening In International Business Communication Communication is one of the basic thing in life. People may buy product and using services with communication. In the business world, communication become more and more important. It is the essence of organisation to lead forward among its competitor. According to Mary Ellen Guffey by good communication in organisation one may be able to work successfully in all team environments especially if members do not meetRead MoreSyllabus1484 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages64 hours divided into 4 hours per week. The total of weeks will be 16. Week 1 Unit 1: Hospital Environment I Topics | * Introduction to the ESP course. * Introducing yourself and other people. | Language Skills and Knowledge | Listening: Listening about how people get to know each other.Speaking: Introducing Yourself amp; other People.Reading: Different types of introducing people.Writing: Complete an application with your information. Grammar: Verb to be with. Yes or no questions andRead MoreEAT1/2 Task 1 602.8-.3 Essay1217 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageslanguage has advanced to include listening, speaking, reading, writing, viewing and visual representation. These components are known as the six language arts and while they are individual components they are as well interdependent. What you learn about one affects what and how you learn about the others. Listening is the foundation for speaking, reading and writing. Listening is how we interpret sounds that we hear and what those sounds mean. In the beginning listening is merely receptive. Our brainRead MoreThe Impact Of Hearing English For High School Students The Skills Of Radio Programs1747 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesprograms. This research helps develop listening and ways of developing them in person and listen to the correct pronunciation of the word from a real person by listening to radio programs in skills. Listening is a focus on basic language skills, And to develop good listening skills in order to cope with the academic requirements of the school and learn adequate reading and writing skills. It can show better concentration and memory when working to develop good listening skills, It is a skill most prominentRead MoreThe Importance of Listening Skills in the Workplace Essay1115 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAssessment Task: Given that listening accounts for 45 per cent of time spent on communication (Eunson 2012:310), argue the importance of listening skills in the workplace. Your analysis should identify three specific listening behaviors and provide examples to demonstrate how these skills promote communication and understanding. Support your analysis with relevant communication theory and evidence from appropriate academic sources. Listening skills play a significant role in evaluatingRead MoreLanguage Arts Development Essay1695 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesmany different aspects of learning. There are many theories that suggest the different ways that children learn, but in the end there are six key concepts that each child must master in order to be fully proficient. These are reading, writing, speaking, listening, viewing, and visually representing. These concepts build upon each other and work together to ensure that the child will have a strong educational foundation. Reading begins early in childhood and usually begins with a child learningRead MoreStrategies For Teaching Writing As A Group1634 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAnalysis of groupÃ¢â¬â¢s discussion Throughout week eight which was looking at strategies for teaching writing as a group, we presented a well-rounded daily task to the discussion board, awaiting students in our learning group to respond. It s these responses that will guide this section of the folio and my own personal reflection regarding my role in the group. From day one of our posts students has responded well. One post that was submitted by Skinner (2017) has supported my own views of literacy;Read MoreRoles And Impact Of Of Academic Listening Skills1290 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe roles and impacts of Academic listening skills on EAL international students in New Zealand Colleges and Universities (B) The continuous increase in the number of international students mostly from non-native English speaking countries such as China, Iran, Malaysia and India, travelling to study in New Zealand is alarming. There is a growing concern on which components of academic language skills English as an additional language (EAL) international students will require for studies, as the mediumRead MoreTalent vs Skill1090 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesteaching covers four macro-skills needed for communicating Ã¢â¬â listening, speaking, reading and writing. Good language teachers plan lessons, and sequences of lessons, which include a mixture of all the macro-skills, rather than focusing on developing only one macro-skill at a time. Ã Oral skills Literacy skills Receptive skills Listening Reading Productive skills Speaking Writing Listening and speaking are oral skills. Reading and writing are literacy skills. Each week teachers should include someRead MoreListening : Listening Across Different Departments Essay1702 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesListening Across Different Departments My decision to mindfully listen to two economics classes and one communication class was an attempt to see how different the conversations and thinking were between the two disciplines. My original assumption was that the economics students were going to act more logocentric than the communication students, as we are taught to think critically in communication classes. After listening, I noticed that the professor of the economics class showed signs of logocentrism
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Performance Funding, A Descriptive Study During the years 1979 to 2007, 26 states enacted performance funding (Harnisch 2011). According to the National Conference of State Legislatures, today 33 states use performance based funding as a source of determination for their higher education institutions. Locally, the state of Louisiana is not exempt. According to senate bill 337, the higher education commissioner must submit a proposal for outcome based funding by the end of 2015 to the Board of Regents for approval. Performance based funds are often used across the United States thus understanding this mandate is critical to the continued success of higher education institutions. The research shows both the positive and negative outcomesÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Dougherty notes that the Ã¢â¬Å"First wave of performance funding adoption began in Tennessee in 1979, and ended in 2000, when a recession struck and caused a sharp decline in new program adoptions and the discontinuation of many existing programs. It seemed a s if performance funding had been but a passing fancy. However, beginning in 2007, another wave of performance funding arose. The first-wave programs typically involved a bonus for higher education institutions above base state funding. The performance funding bonus was relatively small, between 1 and 6 percent of base state funding for public higher educationÃ¢â¬ (Dougherty and Reddy 201). This policy has been labeled Ã¢â¬Å"performance funding 1.0Ã¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"The second wave of performance funding began in 2007 with two-thirds of these new programs being re-adoptions of discontinued first-wave programs. In about two-fifths of these wave 2 programs, performance funding typically did not take the form of a bonus on top of regular state funding. Rather, performance funding dollars were embedded in the base state funding for higher education. This has been dubbed Ã¢â¬Å"performance funding 2.0Ã¢â¬ (Dougherty and Reddy 2013). As noted by Friedel, Performance 1.0 emphasized outcome measures such
Sorry ladies but this one is for the guys. Fellas close your eyes imagine you went through college playing your favorite sport or in this case football, imagine your on defense the running back has the ball heÃ¢â¬â¢s about to score the game winning touchdown and just as heÃ¢â¬â¢s getting to run across the goal line BAM! You knock him clean off his feet before he scores and you guys win the game. But wait you hear whistles and see flags everywhere, you just got penalized for un-sportsmen like conduct, the ball is placed at the spot of the penalty and you get fined over $25,000 dollars, all because your helmet accidently hit the other playerÃ¢â¬â¢s helmet. We will write a custom essay sample on Nfl Rule Changes or any similar topic only for you Order Now This is what the NFL has come down to people. In this speech I am going to share with you the new rules implemented into football, the type of fines you get for playing football (doing your job) and how I think football will be ruined in the next 10 years. To Begin With, according to http://www. nfl. com/rulebook over the last ten years or so football (NFL and NCAA) has been adding rules that are intended to protect players, and rules that have no significance other than to give the offense an advantage . Roughing the passer rules, illegal contact, horse collar tackling, below the waist blocks, head to head contact, and many more. Football to me is a gladiator sport played by tough strong men who play hurt and try to hurt others. It seems that lately the leagues just want high profile players scoring all the time, with no violence or defense. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s becoming more like basketball, is the game on the decline? Also, look at the tough as nails superstars of last year, where have they gone. And if you can watch a football game from the 50? s 60? s or 70? Yes, these rules have made football rather boring. Obviously, they donÃ¢â¬â¢t remember names such as Mean Joe Greene, Jack Lambert, Howie Long, and others. These guys were hard hitting players. The NFL says they are looking out for the future of the players and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why they implement all these rules but then at the same time they lengthen the season it just doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t make sense. Secondly, letÃ¢â¬â¢s go back to the 2 011 season the infamous Ã¢â¬Å"lockoutÃ¢â¬ where in a few short words Ã¢â¬Å"the NFL was going brokeÃ¢â¬ thankfully they got through it and now we have football for sure until 2016. But itÃ¢â¬â¢s funny to see the results of the lockout till this day. Two years ago players didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to worry about all these strictly enforced rules but now since the NFL needs more money you hear about all these ridiculous fines that the players get for simply just doing their job which is to play football. There are people in this world that work hard every day of their lives and most of them donÃ¢â¬â¢t make what football players get fined in a whole year of working. For example, according to the Bleach Report at http://bleacherreport. com players such as E. J. Henderson who was fined $5,000 for illegal use of hands, Richie Incognito was also fined for $5,000 for a facemask penalty and an additional $5,000 for an illegal chop block. Plaxico BurressÃ was fined $5,000 for tossing a ball into the stands after scoring a touchdown againstÃ San Francisco; DeAngelo Williams was fined $7,500 for throwing a couple balls into the stands in their game againstÃ New Orleans. And a real ridiculous one was Lamar Woodley who was fined $10,000 for sackingÃ RedskinsÃ quarterback Jason Campbell Ã¢â¬Å"in an intimidating manner. I know itÃ¢â¬â¢s not just me who thinks these fines are ill-advised. Last, letÃ¢â¬â¢s talk about how I think the NFL or the game of football in general is going to change. We can all agree that football now isnÃ¢â¬â¢t the same football ten, twenty years ago which in some ways can be good for instance the equipment has improved in great strides but even though they are making more protective equipment they are taking the violence that I and the rest of America like that comes with the game of football. By adding all these rules that you canÃ¢â¬â¢t hit players a certain way, you have to use certain body parts to tackle, and even after the tackle you have all that adrenaline corseting through your veins and you canÃ¢â¬â¢t even express your emotions without getting penalized and as a football player I can tell you thatÃ¢â¬â¢s unfair thatÃ¢â¬â¢s what the people like to see the emotion. Now letÃ¢â¬â¢s talk about college football even they have added rules to the rule book. And as much as some of you might not think itÃ¢â¬â¢s a big deal it is to us defensive players, because now not only do we have to figure out what the offense is doing, where the ball is at now we have to worry about when they have the ball where to Ã¢â¬Å"properlyÃ¢â¬ tackle them or having to wait till the receiver has Ã¢â¬Å"complete controlÃ¢â¬ of the ball before a defensive player can hit him, how is that football if IÃ¢â¬â¢m letting him catch the ball I was under the impression that we donÃ¢â¬â¢t let them catch the ball but whatever. And according to http://www. theatlanticwire. om they are even trying to change more rules to make football Ã¢â¬Å"more safeÃ¢â¬ at this rate kids in college arenÃ¢â¬â¢t going to want to play professional football anymore which will cause a big problem cause according to NFL. com NFL merchandise makes up for 53% of its total profit. And no one will watch what is left of what the NFL calls football. To conclude, to sum up what IÃ¢â¬â ¢m trying to say is if no one stands up to what the commissioners are trying to do with football thereÃ¢â¬â¢s going to be a lot of changes that no one likes they need to come up with some kind of alternative to fining player and suspending the for doing their jobs. So next time youÃ¢â¬â¢re watching a game on TV or at the stadium and you see a player get tackled and itÃ¢â¬â¢s a big hit just remember the person who tackled the player is most likely going to get fined more than most people in America make in a year. And mark my words if the NFL doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t do something quick the fans will have a big impact and football will change as we know it. Ron, Rokhy. Ã¢â¬Å"NFL tackling itself with new Ã¢â¬Å"safetyÃ¢â¬ rules. Ã¢â¬Å"Daily Sundial. Copyright Ã © 2012 Ã¢â¬â Daily Sundial, 06 09 2011. Web. 12 Feb 2013. http://sundial. csun. edu. John, Hudson. Ã¢â¬Å"Will the NFLÃ¢â¬â¢s New Hitting Rules Ruin Football?. Ã¢â¬ Ã Atlantic Wire. Copyright Ã © 2013 by The Atlantic Monthly Group, 19 10 2010. Web. 12 Feb 2013. http://www. theatlanticwire. com. Derek, Correspondent Ã¢â¬Å"Is Roger Goodell Ruining Football?. Ã¢â¬ Ã Bleacher Report. Copyright Ã © 2013 Bleacher Report, Inc, 05 04 2009. Web. 12 Feb 2013. http://bleacherreport. com. How to cite Nfl Rule Changes, Essay examples
Sunday, April 26, 2020
Introduction Indonesia is ranked fourth in the world among the most populous Muslim nations. The spread of Muslim faith in Indonesia can be graded as Ã¢â¬Å"moderateÃ¢â¬ with the country being strategically positioned along the sea lines, which appropriately connect to the energy resources of the Middle East (Vaughn, 2009).Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on The Battle of Tropical Islam: struggle for an Islamic Identity in Indonesia specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Many peace consultants look at Indonesia as being the most critical partner in waging a struggle against radical Islamist Militants in South East Asia. Over time, Indonesia has continued to persue democracy and develop the realms of civil society and law under new reforms by the current president, Susilo. Nevertheless, there exist unhealed wounds caused by the abuse of human rights with the major culpritÃ¢â¬â¢s being the military under the r eign of former President Suharto for three decades. Islam Identity in Indonesia: The escapade Indonesia started as a secular state and managed to survive as one (Paris and Schwarz, 1999). This is because Islam in Indonesia has integrated or adapted with ancient local customs and beliefs that emanate from a moderate and benign version of Islam. The majority of Muslims in Indonesia are traditionalists; a tendency that incorporates strong elements of Sufi mysticism and pre-Islamic Javanese traditions (Haseman and Rabasa, 2002). They follow the local based law called Ã¢â¬Å"adatÃ¢â¬ which takes precedence over strict Islamic custom (Gocher and Vatikiotis, 2006). Additionally, Indonesia originally faced a peaceful spread of Islam that was not accompanied by force; instead, winds of Islamic reform had reached Indonesia from the Middle East gracefully uniting with the local beliefs (Paris and Schwarz, 1999). This is why rigid adherence to Islamic shariah law is found to be an unfruitful venture due to the strong mismatching foundations. During the early part of the twentieth century two different views of Islam in Indonesia started to emerge that caused a split emerged between the modernists and the more conservatives (Paris and Schwarz 1999). The modernist could not accept the integration of Islam with local customs, but demanded that Javanese Islam be purged of its non-Islamic superstitions. This division was greatly highlighted during the early years of IndonesiaÃ¢â¬â¢s independence. This occurrence shows that even with the different ideologists about Islam that exist within Islam, there is an internal fight on superiority; each strain would want others to declare them as the true faith of Muslim. There exists the most basic fact here: Indonesia as a Muslim country has been faced with a lot of political unrest over time, with Muslim being the salient factor Indonesian Politics (Bull and Woodward, 2009). Nevertheless, after the democratic transition, many Isla mist groups both in Indonesia and the Middle East have risen up and gotten very active, some being violent and others with an approach of Islam social norms.Advertising Looking for research paper on international relations? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The irony in this happening is that Islamist groups that would otherwise have been outlawed by todayÃ¢â¬â¢s democratic rule are being allowed to exist as active political players. The most worrying issue as far as a conflict in the minds of Muslim radicals is concerned is that war cannot be won without being fought (Peters, 2002). The idea here is that this tiff has spread to a national level, eminent before an international platform. Transnational terrorism was made active mostly after the occurrences of September 11. That very date has since then left an unforgettable mark on the whole world. Relations between different states faced a lot of tiffs with little or no benign subsequent relations whatsoever (Kadir, 2002). September 11 twisted the idea of international relations to take another course; there became a general picture of the abundance of a grudge between the extremist Islam and the Liberal, capitalist and the Christian West. Kadir (2002) explains that after the tragic occurrence, leaders of the Islamic communities in Indonesia distanced themselves from the radical Muslim faiths that would encourage terrorism, terming them as deviant faiths. The leaders of Muslim faith and the government leaders in Indonesia and South East Asia refuted to have such radical versions of Islam to spread to their countries. Nonetheless, their hopes can be seen as denial of the past political Muslim experiences of the country. This is basically because, Indonesia faced many years of Islamist military oppression where violence was clear and pronounced (Vaugh, 2009). In the same case, it is the same occurrences, which left nearly 500, 000 Indonesian dead during th e Ã¢â¬Å"new orderÃ¢â¬ rule of President Suharto. The association of such actions with radical Muslim faith have resulted to the Indonesian Muslim leaders to have a distant attitude towards Radical Muslim faith. On the other hand, there exists a number of Radical or Ã¢â¬Å"fundamentalistÃ¢â¬ Muslims within Indonesia especially during periods of both Sukarno and Suharto where several attempts to establish an Islamic state in Indonesia were made (Indonesia Backgrounder, 2004). Their jubilance has been given so much media attention in recent years, which has created a misconception that Indonesian Islam, is radical. According to Fox (2004), there arose a new Islamic movement called Ã¢â¬Å"Hitbut TahrirÃ¢â¬ that had foundations outside Indonesia. This group sought to revamp and attain the inclusion of global fundamentality in the Indonesian national landscape, against nationalism and state power (Fox, 2004). This notion has overshadowed the truth about Indonesian Islam, which i s actually accommodating and moderate as compared to other fundamentalist Muslim traits (Jones, 2007). Indonesia is composed of a diverse set of communities spread across thousands of islands. It is because of this that during the early years, the focus of the government was to strengthen nationalism and independence. It was during the Japanese occupation of Indonesia that Islam officially recognized (Gocher and Vatikiotis, 2006). This was a first step that would ensure future pressure on the government to accommodate Islamic political aspirations.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on The Battle of Tropical Islam: struggle for an Islamic Identity in Indonesia specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There eventually arose two major opposing Islamic parties (Masjumi and Hisbullah), which always had heated constitutional debates about the form that new Indonesia state was to take. On one hand, the Masjumi demanded tha t Islam be declared the state religion, while other groups demanded for the adoption of an Islamic state that is purely based on the Sharia law (Marshall, 2005). It was here that the government decided to marginalize those advocating the movement for an Islamic state in Indonesia because there was fear that the idea of an Islamic state would destroy Indonesia even before Independence (Paris and Schwarz, 1999). According to Geocher and Vatikiotis (2006), so as to tone-down the tension between the government and the Muslim community, there was an introduced state philosophy which insisted that the state was to be based on a single belief of a Ã¢â¬Å"one supreme GodÃ¢â¬ . Additionally, it was also made clear that God applied not specifically only to Islam, but rather of the five known official religions: Protestantism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Catholic and Islam (Marshall, 2005). This unclear idea about the superiority and clarity of Islam created high tension between the Muslim community and the new independent government, of which it had helped install during the fight for independence. During the Ã¢â¬Å"New OrderÃ¢â¬ regime, Islam was greatly marginalized through the oppressive centralized government at the time. The new regime was determined to establish the military as the primary broker in Indonesia. With the defeat of the communists, Muslims groups expected to be rewarded for helping the army, instead the Ã¢â¬Å"New OrderÃ¢â¬ acted promptly to rollback abuse to the camp of the Muslims (Gocher and Vatikiotis, 2006). The Muslim were the only religious group left who had the numbers and organizational strength to compete for power with the army. Consequent events saw Suharto acting quickly to more drastically kill the Influence of Islamic idioms in to the government policies (Paris and Schwarz, 1999). In 1973, Suharto forced the merger of Muslim groups, as an attempt to kill the upcoming unrest.Advertising Looking for research paper on international relations? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As a result, Islamists viewed this as a potential policy that sought to view Islam as lacking the viability to influence the government policies or participate it IndonesiaÃ¢â¬â¢s political landscape (Marshall, 2005). This was followed by an even greater blow to Muslim interests; the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to require all political and social organizations to adopt Ã¢â¬Å"PancasilaÃ¢â¬ as their sole ideological basis. There was a general belief by the Muslims that Pancasila sought to place man over Ã¢â¬Å"AllahÃ¢â¬ and that the idea was heretical (Paris and Schwarz, 1999). Gocher and Vatikiotis, (2006) summed up the New OrderÃ¢â¬â¢s primary social achievement; Delivering Indonesia from the tangles of the vigorous tides that had sweeping the world as from the late 1970s. Nevertheless, there are critics who believe that the attempt the curb Islam in Indonesia, has made Indonesia Islamic. There are a number of forces for Islamic revivalism that has re-introduced debates on whether or not Indonesia should be an Islamic state. First, international influences from Islamic revolutions in countries like Iran have spurred up Indonesian interest in Islam (Paris and Schwarz, 1999). Additionally, the spread of Islam in campuses and the growing Islamic intellectual influences on the attitudes towards national, social and economic developments have directed such views on the basis of Islam. This force to Islamic revivalism were especially evident in the younger generation, who are seen to be more vigilant in making Muslim faith to be more applicable to life in the modern world than it already is. Lastly, political dynamics where Suharto was losing his power base as he encountered greater opposition within the ranks of the military; occurrences that twisted his arm and got him to break-ice and coincide with the Muslim groups so as to ensure that the relationship with the military stayed alive. The most alarming thing about this whole Muslim revival issue is th at, on the occurrence of the Asian crisis in the late 1997, there was no shift. More concern and precedence was given to the reviving of relations with the Muslims. This event lead to the fall of the Ã¢â¬Å"New orderÃ¢â¬ regime that eventually saw SuhartoÃ¢â¬â¢s thirty two years of rule come to an end. The result was a major power gap that was space enough for the Radical Islamists to step in (Marshall, 2005). According to Marshall (2005) the unexpected occurrence has brought about the resurgence of earlier Islamists ideologies and aspirations. More critical is the drastic proclamation of Indonesia as a state of Islamic religion as a defiance to SuhartoÃ¢â¬â¢s Pancasila regime. This is proven by attempts by Muslim groups to reintroduce the Ã¢â¬Å"Jakarta CharterÃ¢â¬ which would allow the application of shariah law and transform Indonesia into an Islamic state. For now, they have been kept democratically at bay as the Ã¢â¬Å"PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Consultative AssemblyÃ¢â¬ avoi ded a direct vote on the issue, rebuffing the Islamic parties in favor of maintaining the original, more pluralist phrasing. Although the New Order has made it compulsory in the past, a number of parties have recently adopted Islam as their ideological basis instead of Pancasila. Increased freedoms in the post-Suharto period have radical strains of Muslim groups after years of being marginalized politically and socially. There has also been increase infiltration by radical international Islamist groups seeking to spread their beliefs into Indonesia. The traditional threat of shariah law in Indonesia is now back stronger than ever, and it is important to further strengthen democratic elements among mainstream Indonesian Muslims. Attempts to solve the Conflict There are basically three models of government that Indonesia can preside in; a democratic regime, a religious regime, and a democratic religious government. These different models lie in the ancient argument between the compati bility of democracy and political Islam (Berger, 1999). The traditional school of thought holds that democracy and political Islam are not compatible. It is a radical belief, that the Ã¢â¬Å"institutionalization of shura and ijma provides the state, which expresses the general will, with a normative role in making basic choices in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s livesÃ¢â¬ (Safi, 2003). The idea that the state is now responsible for our salvation is now brought about as a result. As Safi (2003), explains Ã¢â¬Å"individual religiosity is transformed by the radicals into a communal public will, itself transformed into state control, both moral and political. This model involves the implementation of Shariah law and the transformation of an Islamic state. Scholars argue that this model is inherently inconsistent with the divine sources as Islam can only be understood through human reason; Ã¢â¬Å"the institution that emerges from that combination is not a theocratic stateÃ¢â¬ (Berger 1999). This i s an absolute model that demands exclusivity which stops short of a pluralistic understanding of Islam. It is the revisionist school of thought that believes that democracy and Islam are only compatible in an oppressive or despotic form of government. This is happens because in most countries in the Muslim world, democracy is only practiced as the giver of proper legality (Safi, 2003). So while these countries have democratic institutions, in reality none of these processes is really observed. This was evident in the New Order regime, where Suharto was at the apex of politics in Indonesia. It is in fact these forms of regimes that push people away from such institutions to a more radical form of a complete unity between state and religion; an Islamic state. The post-revisionist school of thought now holds that there are in fact two different ways to articulate Islam and democratic regime forms without transforming into an Islamic state. This view holds that the relationship between Islam and politics was Ã¢â¬Å"never premised on the so-called Islamic state or the comprehensive application of the ShariaÃ¢â¬ (Berger, 1999). It rejects exclusive reliance on the religious laws in order to confirm whether or not democratic religiosity is wrong (Sadri, Sadri and Soroush, 2002). This school of thought believes that the underlying choice should be made based on the society; because in a religious society an innocently secular government would be against democracy (Sadri, Sadri and Soroush, 2002). This school of thought, believes that the success of each models depend on whether the majority is a secular or a religious one. According to Berger (1999), the former believes in the European way of keeping political authority at bay from Islam while the latter calls for clarify the relations between Muslim and politics instead of either commenting the unity or totally fragmenting them. The first model believes in a secular democratic regime, whereby there is a clear sepa ration between religion and the state. This is a valid model basically because many people believe that a democratic religious government will lack the humility to be accountable to people (Sadri, Sadri and Soroush, 2002). According to Berger (1999), Oppositions to the first model claim that Ã¢â¬Å"advocates of secularism will appear to be calling on their own societies to abandon their Islamic cultural and religious foundations.Ã¢â¬ They also believe that secularism came to Ã¢â¬Å"Islamic societies in the dubious company of Western colonialism and post-colonial hegemony.Ã¢â¬ (Berger 1999). On the other hand, the second model demands the clarification and specification of the relationship between Islam and political authority on the basis of an Islamic approach to secularism. In this model, the Ã¢â¬Å"protection of basic human rights, especially freedom of belief, expression, and association, is an Islamic imperative and not merely a requirement of international treaties.Ã¢â¬ (Berger 1999) One cannot forget that in democratic societies, religious tolerance is practiced, as Ã¢â¬Å"the path of examined religiosity is more open and invitingÃ¢â¬ (Sadri, Sadi and Soroush, 2002). Either way, one must understand that in order for both these models to work, democracy cannot adjust to religious understanding; it is religious understanding that should adjust itself to democracy. Beyond the obvious The description of constant unrests in Indonesia has always been rotating around one issue: Muslim religion. As stated earlier, the problem from a single religious unit has grown to be the most difficult puzzle that not even the smartest person in the country with his well thought- out and profound intelligent ideas can solve. This bid dilemma calls for a more rationalized, out of the norm idea so as to solve the rationalized and unprecedented turmoil that lingers in the lives of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most populous Muslim country. I suggest that is time for us to chan ge gears and look at the issue with an open mind; Indonesia as a country is in deep trouble as far as National democracy is concerned and, the USA is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s strongest country as far as democracy, economy and internal liberty is concerned. I the itching query about this should be: what does the USA have to with Indonesia? My idea is not at all based on the lines of Indonesia having to solicit for military assistance or any other donations of some kind from the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s strongest country, no. If we take another direction and look at the current president to the United Sates of America, president Obama, we will discover that his connection to Indonesia is deep! As a matter of fact, Barack spent part of his childhood in Indonesia and, yes he was born to an Indonesian mother. Needless to mention, he previously had an Indonesian name; Barry Soetero. I think Barry Soetero was the guardian angel given to Indonesia so as to bring its deepest problems to an end. It is a fact that President Obama is also known as Ã¢â¬Å"HusseinÃ¢â¬ . This tells us that he has a Muslim background. Both Barry Soetero and Indonesia need not to be told that there is a clear indication of an easy way to solve the problem here. The Bombshell President Barack Hussein Obama is of an Indonesian Background. He also has a Muslim background. Currently is the president of the WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s strongest country ruling without any problems arising from religious clashes. Barack is a modernized Muslim ruling in a country with no Muslim backgrounds. President Barack Obama should therefore finish his term in the USA, then head back to his roots, apply for citizenship of which I am pretty sure he will get basing on his current friendly relations with Indonesia. Ultimately, he should plunge himself in to the Indonesian political landscape and vie for presidency. Basing on his roots being from Indonesia and him having a Muslim background coupled with good speech and a likable character he s hould win. Eventually o attainting presidency, he should channel American ideas that will help Indonesia attain a Ã¢â¬Å"super-power levelÃ¢â¬ of democracy. In this regard, Muslim will be a peaceful religion, as peaceful as a second middle name (Hussein). The Islamic Identity in Indonesia will therefore have gotten its place without any bloodshed, and with the most suited ambassador of them all. Reference List Berger. L., P. (1999). The desecularization of the world: resurgent religion and world politics. Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. Fox, J., J. (2004). Currents in Contemporary Islam in Indonesia.Ã Web. Gocher, J., Vatikiotis. M. (2006). Indonesia: Islands of imagination. New York: Tuttle Haseman, B., J. Rabasa, A. (2002). The military and democracy in Indonesia: challenges, politics and power, Issue 1599. California: Rand Corporation Indonesia Backgrounder. (2004). Why Salafism and terrorism mostly donÃ¢â¬â¢t mix. Web. Jones, C. (2007). Fashion and faith in urban Indonesia. Web. Kadir, S. (2002). Mapping Politics in Southeast Asia After September 11.Ã Web. Marshall. A., P. (2005). Radical IslamÃ¢â¬â¢s rules: the worldwide spread of extreme ShariÃ¢â¬â¢a law. New York: Rowan Littlefield. Peters Ralph. (2002). Rolling Back Radical Islam.Ã Web Paris. J., Schwarz. A. (1999). Politics of post- Suharto Indonesia. Washington: Council of foreign relations Sadri, A., Sadri, M. Soroush, A. (2002). Reason, Freedom and Democracy in Islam: essential writings of Abdolkarim. New York: Oxford University Press. Safi, O. (2003). Progressive Muslims: on justice, gender and pluralism. London: One world. Vaughn, B. (2009). Indonesia: Domestic Politics, Strategic Dynamics, and American Interests.Ã Web. Woodward. M. Bull, L., R. (2009). Israeli Nukes versus Palestinian Slingshots: David and Goliath in Indonesia. Web. This research paper on The Battle of Tropical Islam: struggle for an Islamic Identity in Indonesia was written and submitted by user Farrah Huffman to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Business Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility Introduction Scholars and business administrators agree that the activities of companies should be based on some moral judgment. Mere pursuit of profits is no longer acceptable for organizations that claim to be good corporate citizens. It is believed that business ethics and corporate social ethics should ensure that companies are managed in ways that benefit the whole of society.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Business Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This essay is aimed at examining this claim. In particular, it is possible to argue that this requirement should be specified and limited. Businesses can benefit the entire community by offering excellent services or good. Moreover, they should eliminate or minimize possible risks to the wellbeing of the community. However, managers cannot possibly predict the effects of business activities on the whole of society since such effects may be difficult to trace. The main task of CSR and business ethics is to eliminate various malpractices that can harm the interests of various stakeholders such as clients, employees, or community. Certainly, for-profit organizations can bring some improvements into the live of the community, by creating jobs or participating in charity; however, the capabilities of companies are limited and managers should also think about the profitability and the interests of the shareholders. On the whole, one can say that business ethics and CSR should act as safeguards against various dangers, but people should not think that businesses should responsible for the wellbeing of the entire community. In this paper I would like to illustrate how corporate social responsibility and business ethics can be applied by modern businesses. The first section will examine the reasons why many companies chose to follow to the principles of CSR and business ethics. I will also speak about the stake holder theory that explains how enterprises interact with the community. The second section will discuss the role of business as beneficiaries. In particular, it is necessary to show that companies cannot always benefit the whole of society, because they should also think about their organizational performance and profitability. Finally, I will discuss more specific applications of business ethics and CSR.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The origins of CSR and business ethics First, it should be noted that such concepts as corporate social responsibility and business ethics emerged as a response to the criticism to which businesses have often been subjected by journalists, political activists or lawyers. They were supposed to reconcile the needs of businesses and the communities in which they operated. Their goal was to make companies more accountable to the commun ity. More importantly, business ethics and CSR had to eradicate various malpractices of for-profit organizations. In particular, one can mention such issues as failure to ensure the safety of workers or low wages (Morgan 2006, p. 306). Moreover, businesses are often blamed for the failure to support the needs of workers, for instance, one can mention female workers who must care about their children (Pocock 2005, p. 32). Furthermore, modern companies are obliged to think about the work-life balance of workers (Pocock 2005b, p. 198). Thus, business ethics and CSR enable businesses and employees to reach some kind of a compromise. Apart from that, companies have to respond to the pressure of governmental institutions. They are forced to respond to such issues as corporate fraud, environmental pollution, or dishonest financial reporting. Many societies have raised the performance standards for modern enterprises. Some malpractice like wage discrimination or environmental pollution are no longer acceptable either for the government or the community. Therefore, the principles of CSR and business ethics are supposed to eliminate such malpractices that can harm the interest of various stakeholders. They have to shield businesses from public criticism, law suits or governmental action. This is one of the reasons why many business leaders are favorable of CSR. Yet, it would be an exaggeration to say that they are concerned about the benefit of the whole community. Even the most ardent critics of corporations do not say that they have to bring improvements to the entire society. The problem is that the society is a very comprehensive term that includes every person living within a certain geographical area as well as institutions that have been created by the members of the community. Thus, one can ask how exactly companies are obliged to benefit the whole of society. The thing is that there is no ethical imperative requiring business to think about the wellbeing of eve ry person. Such a task is hardly possible for individuals or organizations. Certainly, one can say that companies can benefit these people mostly by providing good products or services or minimizing hypothetical dangers of their activities. Moreover, they can donate to various construction projects and even give money to the construction of roads or bridges (Banerjee 2009, p. 1555).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Business Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Yet, it is difficult to argue that business administrators have to think only about the benefit of the community. They should also be concerned with the profitability of the enterprise and the interests of stockholders. Provided that they do not cope with this task, the very sustainability of many companies can be at risk. This is another argument that should not be overlooked. It should be noted that such notions as corpo rate social responsibility and business ethics take their origins in the stakeholder theory. According to this approach companies should not be seen only as isolated agents that merely deliver goods or services to clients. More likely, they should be regarded as entities that can impact a variety of stakeholders, for instance, buyers, workers, or community. It is possible to refer to such an author as Joel Bakan (2005) who believes that corporations are probably the most important institutions in the world since they shape practically every area of human life (p. 5). Furthermore, business administrators should also take into account that these stakeholders can significantly affect the performance of any organization. For instance, clients, who believe that a company neglects their safety needs, may simply use the products or services a different company. This is why corporate executives should understand that unethical practices can eventually result in the loss of profits. Corporat e social responsibility and business ethics are importance because they show how companies should interact with various stakeholders. However, CSR or business ethics do not eliminate the idea that companies have to make profits. More importantly, the promotion of public welfare must not harm the financial aspects of performance. This is why people should not assume that companies will act as social beneficiaries. This is the main issues that should be taken into account. Admittedly, managers should not regard themselves as Ã¢â¬Å"morally neutral charactersÃ¢â¬ (Roberts 1984, p. 288). They cannot exclude ethical consideration from the decision-making process (Watson 2003, p. 169). The thing is that they can gain the trust of other employees by showing that they adhere to certain ethical principles such as integrity.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Similarly, companies can gain the trust of customers by demonstrating that they genuinely care about their needs. Nonetheless, one cannot oblige them to think only about the welfare of the welfare of the community. Such a requirement will not be feasible. Thus, people should not put rely on those corporate executives who argue that they are concerned only with the benefit of the public since such claims are not always substantiated. Beneficiary role of companies and its limitations At this point, it is important to discuss some limitations of CSR and business ethics. Special attention should be paid to the ability of businesses to bring improvements to the community. However, firms have responsibilities to their stockholders who want organizations to be run effectively. The general premise is companies are obliged to create certain benefits for the community. Thus, the question arises how they should do it. First of all, they are supposed to provide goods and services that can creat e some value for people. This is probably the most important requirement and the sustainability of every company depends on its ability to create this value. Nevertheless, this requirement is a necessity, rather than a moral obligation. Businesses do not CSR or business ethics in order to remember about it. Secondly, it is possible the creation of jobs. This is one of the most important benefits that firms can bring to the society. In this way, they can improve the welfare of the population by increasing their purchasing power. However, there is a significant limitation of this requirement. The thing is that the development of technologies enables businesses to reduce the number of workers and eventually improve their cost-efficiency. In many cases, they no longer need to hire more workers. The performance of a company is assessed according to its cost-efficiency, and many organizations try to reduce their labor force and employ only those people who can best contribute to organizat ional success. Thus, business administrators are not morally obliged to think about the creation of jobs, since they should also think about the productivity. Therefore, there is some conflict between the needs of for-profit organizations and the needs of the society. In some cases, the most efficient business practices can harm some members of the community. This is the critical issue that people should take into account. If managers take business ethics and CSR to their extreme, they may endanger the interests of shareholders. Additionally, it is assumed that businesses are obliged to promote diversity and empower those people who were previously discriminated, for instance, on the basis of race, gender or disability (Strachan, French, Burgess, 2009, p. 18). One of their roles is to reduce inequalities existing in the society. To some degree, this requirement is quite legitimate because even nowadays a great number of people may be disadvantaged due to some reasons. For instance, some industries are called male-dominated; in particular, one can mention auditing industry (Jonnengard, Stafsudd, Elg 2010, p. 722). Besides, many people may not secure employment because of their disability. This is why companies should promote affirmative action which is required by legislation (Ainsworth, Knox, OÃ¢â¬â¢Flynn, 2010, p. 660). Nevertheless, one should take into account, businesses have to hire the most skilled and motivated candidates. HR professionals have to look at the experience of an employee, and his/her skills. They are the most important criteria. Therefore, companies cannot employ a person only because he/she represents an ethical or racial group that was previously discriminated or disadvantaged. Thus, the corporate social responsibility of enterprises has some limitations. One should expect that companies will be willing to promote social justice at the expense of their performance. Thirdly, some supporters of corporate social responsibility may beli eve that businesses should participate in charitable activities or support volunteer projects. Some organizations may be engaged in such activities, but management should also think about daily operations and expenses of a company. Thus, promotion of community welfare should not be done at the expense of efficiency. On the whole, these examples are important because they should that there are some limits to corporate social responsibility. The critics of corporations have to remember that the very existence of these corporations depends on their profitability. In this regard, one can refer to such a company as Shell that currently operates in Nigeria (Banerjee 2009, p. 1555). It has contributed to the construction of roads, hospitals or power utilities in the country (Banerjee 2009, p. 1555). Yet, it is believed that the operations of this company do really contribute to the welfare of the population. In this case, the problem is that many corporations have to work with very corrupt governments, and even when they contribute to charity, other people may not see any significant improvement because the money of the corporation will not be used appropriately. This case shows that the welfare of population does not depend only on the activities of private businesses, even if they are powerful international corporations. Surely, CSR and business ethics emphasize social performance of firms, but governments still remain responsible for welfare of individuals. It has to be their major concern. There is another reason why people should not expect that CSR and business ethics are supposed to benefit the whole of society. The problem is that this formulation is too vague; it does not describe how exactly companies are supposed to act or who they should benefit. This lack of clarity is the main reasons why many people are skeptical about the usefulness of CSR and business ethics. The problem is that too many executives often claim that their companies are responsible cor porate citizens. However, they do not tell what exactly they do in order to benefit the community. However, in many cases, their words may just be a form of pretence. This is why people should be very specific when they identify the goals or corporate social responsibility and business ethics. Specific applications of business ethics and CSR Thus, people should pay more attention to the specific applications of CSR and business ethics. As it has been said before, the main rationale for these safeguards is to create an environment in which malpractices will not be possible. In particular, one can speak about such activities as wage discrimination of workers, corporate fraud, inside trading, violation of customersÃ¢â¬â¢ rights and so forth. The principles of business ethics should act as guidelines for every employee of an organization. Managers and corporate executives have to make sure that the interests and rights of their stakeholders are put under threat. Overall, various corpo rate scandals highlight the need for business ethics and CSR. For example, one can refer to case of Enron (Bakan 2005, p. 23). This example eloquently demonstrates that lack of meaning ethical judgment can lead to the failure of the company and significant losses for its investors (Bakan 2005, p. 23). Thus, the principles of corporate social responsibility are adopted in order to reduce the risk of corporate fraud that may threaten investors, employees, pension funds, and so forth. Additionally, CSR and business ethics are supposed to help individuals who may be forced to act in an immoral way. As it is pointed out by High Willmott (1993) corporate cultures can sometimes become too totalitarian and a person may be pressured to comply with the decisions or values of the group even if some of these decisions are not ethical (p. 521). Some organizations may become too authoritarian and they can view stakeholders only as economic objects (Knights Roberts 1982, p. 51). Thus, business et hics is aimed at minimizing the influence of peer pressure because this influence is not always beneficial. According to the famous psychologist Stanley Milgram (1974), people are more likely to commit immoral acts when they feel that some authority figure will take responsibility for their actions (p. 21). Companies that adopt the principles of business ethics and CSR try to make sure that people feel free to express their opinions when they feel that some decisions are not ethical. Another application of business ethics and CSR may be related to the labor practices of an organization. For example, some companies operating in economically advanced countries employ very people from Africa or Eastern Europe and these individuals may be reduced to the status of slaves since they have no civil rights and they cannot refer to any governmental authority (Bales 2012, p. 12). This is the main tragedy. In his article, Bill Cooke (2003) speaks about the legacies of slavery and the practices used by managers in the ante-bellum America (p. 1895). The thing is that slavery has not been eradicated in the modern workplace. This problem can be effectively addressed if there is proper legislation. Moreover, corporate executives who adhere to the rules of ethics and CSR will ensure that none of companyÃ¢â¬â¢s divisions is engaged in unlawful labor practices. These examples illustrate specific applications of business ethics and corporate social responsibility. Provided that organizations use them as safeguard, they can protect themselves against many risks such as governmental fines or poor publicity. Moreover, they can benefit employees, stockholders, or customers. If business administrators choose to focus on more specific tasks, the work of many organizations can be improved. Conclusion On the whole, this discussion leads to several important points. First of all, business ethics and CSR should be regarded as a system of checks and balances that have to prevent or minimiz e the risk of malpractices within the company. They should ensure that companies adhere to the principles of integrity or openness. Business administrators have to avoid any harm to clients, workers, or environment. This is the most important requirement. Certainly, they can bring such benefits as reduction of inequality, charity, or promotion of employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s rights. However, they should also be concerned with the maximization of revenues. So, corporate social responsibility and business ethics cannot guarantee that companies strive to benefit the whole of society. This promise may not be fulfilled. Instead they should ensure that no harm is done to the community. In particular, these safeguards should protect long-term interests of various stakeholders who are dependent on private businesses. If this approach is adopted, CSR and business ethics will be much more effective. References Ainsworth, S., Knox, A. OÃ¢â¬â¢Flynn, J 2010, Ã¢â¬ËA Blinding Lack of ProgressÃ¢â¬â¢: M anagement Rhetoric and Affirmative ActionÃ¢â¬â¢, Gender, Work and Organization, vol. 17 no. 6, pp.658-678. Bakan, J 2005, The Corporation: The Pathological Pursuit of Profit and Power, Simon Schuster, New York. Bales, K 2012, Disposable People: New Slavery in the Global Economy, Updated with a New Preface, University of California Press, Berkeley. Banerjee, S 2009, Necrocapitalism, Organization Studies, vol. 29 no. 12, pp. 1541-1563. Cooke, B 2003 Ã¢â¬ËThe Denial of Slavery in Management StudiesÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Management Studies, vol. 40 no. 8, pp. 1885-1918. Jonnengard, K., Stafsudd, S., Elg U 2010, Ã¢â¬ËPerformance Evaluations as Gender Barriers in Professional Organizations: A Study of Auditing FirmsÃ¢â¬â¢, Gender, Work and Organization, vol. 17 no. 6, pp. 721-741. Knights D. Roberts J 1982, Ã¢â¬ËThe Power of Organizations or the Organization of PowerÃ¢â¬â¢, Organization Studies, vol. 3 no. 1, pp. 47-63. Milgram, S 1974, Obedience to Authority: An Experimental View, Taylor Francis, New York. Morgan, G 2006, Images of Organization, SAGE, London. Pocock, B 2005, Ã¢â¬ËWork/Care Regimes: Institutions, Culture and Behaviour and the Australian Case.Ã¢â¬â¢ Gender, Work and Organization, vol. 12 no. 1, pp. 32-49. Pocock, B 2005b, Ã¢â¬ËWorkÃ¢â¬âlife Ã¢â¬ËbalanceÃ¢â¬â¢ in Australia: Limited progress, dim ProspectsÃ¢â¬â¢, Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, vol. 43 no. 2, pp. 198-209. Roberts, J 1984, Ã¢â¬ËThe moral character of management practiceÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Management Studies, vol. 21 no. 3, pp. 287-302. Strachan, G., French, E., Burgess J 2009, Managing Diversity in Australia: Theory and Practice, The McGrow-Hill Companies, Sydney. Watson, T 2003, Ã¢â¬ËEthical choice in managerial work: The scope for moral choices in an ethically irrational worldÃ¢â¬â¢, Human Relations, vol. 56 no. 2, pp. 167-185. Willmott, H 1993, Ã¢â¬ËStrength is Ignorance, Slavery is Freedom: Managing Culture in Modern OrganizationsÃ¢â¬ â¢, Journal of Management Studies, vol. 30 no. 4, pp. 515-552.
Monday, March 2, 2020
Biography of Euripides, Third of the Great Tragedians Euripides (480 B.C.Ã¢â¬â406 B.C.) was an ancient writer of Greek tragedy- the third of the famous trio (with Sophocles and Aeschylus). He wrote about women and mythological themes, like Medea and Helen of Troy. He enhanced the importance of intrigue in tragedy. Some aspects of Euripides tragedy seem more at home in comedy than in tragedy, and, indeed, he is considered to have been a significant influence on the creation ofÃ GreekÃ New Comedy. This comic developmentÃ comes after the lifetime ofÃ Euripides and his contemporary, the most familiar writer of Old Comedy, Aristophanes. Fast Facts: Euripides Known For: Famous Greek playwright and tragedian who created the love-dramaBorn: 480 BCE in Ã¢â¬Å½Salamis Island, GreeceParents: Mnesarchus (also spelled Mnesarchides), CleitoDied: 406 or 407 BCE in Macedonia or AthensWell-Known Plays: Alcestis (438 BCE), Heracles (416 BCE), The Trojan Women (415 BCE), Bacchae (405 BCE)Awards and Honors: First prize, Athenian dramatic festival, 441 BCE, 305 BCESpouses: Melite, ChoerineChildren: Mnesarchides, Mnesilochus, EuripidesNotable Quote: There are three classes of citizens. The first are the rich, who are indolent and yet always crave more. The second are the poor, who have nothing, are full of envy, hate the rich, and are easily led by demagogues. Between the two extremes lie those who make the state secure and uphold the laws. Early Life and Career A contemporary of the second of the tragedyÃ trio,Ã Sophocles, Euripides was born around 480 BCE to his parents Mnesarchus or Mnesarchides (a merchant from the Athenian deme of Phlya) and Cleito. It is believed he might have been born on Salamis or Phlya, although that may be a coincidence of the inventive methods used to date his birth. Euripides first competition might have been in 455. He came in third. His initial first prize came in 441, but out of about 92 plays, Euripides won only fourÃ more first prizes- the last, posthumously. Intrigue and Comedy Where Aeschylus and Sophocles emphasized plot, Euripides added intrigue. Intrigue is complicated in Greek tragedy by the constant presence of the all-knowing chorus. Euripides also created the love-drama. New Comedy, a type of GreekÃ dramaÃ that lasted from about 320Ã BCEÃ to the mid-third centuryÃ BCEÃ that offers a mildly satiric view of contemporary Athenian society, later took over the more effective parts of Euripides technique. In a modern performance of Euripides tragedy, Helen, the director explained it was essential for the audience to see immediately that its a comedy. Key Plays Another Euripidean tragedy that portrays women and Greek mythology, and seems to bridge the genres of tragedy, is a satyr play and comedy called Alcestis. In the play, a buffoonish Hercules (Heracles) comes to the house of his friend Admetus. The latter is mourning the death of his wife Alcestis, who has sacrificed her life for him but wont tell Hercules who has died. Hercules overindulges, as usual. While his polite host wont say who died, the appalled household staff will. To make amends for partying at a house in mourning, Hercules goes to the Underworld to rescue Alcestis. Tragedies that Euripides had written shortly before death that had never been performed at Athens City Dionysia were found and entered into the Dionysia, a large festival in ancient Athens, in 305 BCE. Euripides plays won first prize. They included The Bacchae, a tragedy that informs our vision of Dionysus. Unlike in Euripides play Medea, no deus ex machina comes in to save the child-killing mother. Instead, she goes into voluntary exile. It is a thought-provoking, grizzly play, but in the running for Euripides most excellent tragedy. Death Euripides may have died in Athens. Ancient writers from the third century BCE (starting with a poem by Hermesianax [Scullion]) claim Euripides died in 407/406, not in Athens, but in Macedonia, at the court of King Archelaus. Euripides would have been in Macedonia either in self-imposed exile or at the kings invitation. Gilbert Murray thinks the Macedonian despot Archelaus invited Euripides to Macedonia more than once. He had already corralled Agathon, the tragic poet, Timotheus, a musician, Zeuxis, a painter, and possibly, Thucydides, the historian. Legacy Despite winning only limited acclaim during his lifetime, Euripides was the most popular of the three great tragedians for generations after his death. Even during his lifetime, Euripides plays won some acclaim. For example, after the ill-fated Sicilian expedition, where Athens ventured into the Italian island in 427 BCE with disastrous results, those Athenians who could recite Euripides were reportedly saved from slave-labor in the mines. An indication of the resilience of his work is the fact that 18 or 19 of Euripides plays have survived to this day, centuries after he wrote them, and more than the plays of either AeschylusÃ andÃ Sophocles. Sources Ã¢â¬Å"Ancient Greek Dramatic Festivals.Ã¢â¬ Ã The Randolph College Greek Play.. Classical LiteratureAncient Greece-Euripides-Alcestis.Ã¢â¬Å"Euripides Biography.Ã¢â¬ Ã Encyclopedia of World BiographyKawalko Roselli, David. Vegetable-Hawking Mom and Fortunate Son: Euripides, Tragic Style, and Reception. Phoenix Vol. 59, No. 1/2 (Spring-Summer, 2005), pp. 1-49.Murray, Gilbert. Euripides and His Age. 1913.Ã¢â¬Å"New Comedy.Ã¢â¬ Ã EncyclopÃ ¦dia Britannica.Scullion, S. Ã¢â¬Å"Euripides and Macedon, or the Silence of the Frogs.Ã¢â¬ Ã The Classical Quarterly, vol. 53, no. 2, 2003, pp. 389Ã¢â¬â400.
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Market Risk Premium(MRP) - Essay Example It is usual for financial managers and Boards of Directors to be more conservative so that they do not err in costs therefore when they arrive at a hurdle rate, the rate at which investors will start becoming reluctant to invest in their company, and fix a price band that is slightly higher. Through this, they seek to manage costs more prudently to avoid shocks to themselves, but at the same time they cause the investors to shy away from them and lose funding. This is more prevalent in developed markets but in contrast in the emerging markets, due to hidden and accruable values, the investors, both local and overseas are bolder hence the incremental values are higher carrying more MRP. Despite higher taxes, higher volatility and consequently higher MRP on equity this is preferred over debt as the returns are likely to be better. Another factor for this preference is that unless there is and an event like 9/11 or the Enron crisis, historically the socks have always outperformed the debt or bonds. Since the market favors equity, it becomes important to calculate MRP on daily, indeed even several times daily, to present both clear and emerging pictures for the investing public to act upon. On the other hand, this also assists the financial managers to plan their fundraising exercises. MRP is also valuable as it offers insights into past movement and likely future scenario except for events that happen to change it abruptly. At the same time, such subtle changes might also shed light on some expected movements that can affect future calculations. Those who are against MRP forward the argument that MRP movement causes reactions that might be sharp in some cases as they cause a cascading effect. This can sometimes be detrimental and erode confidence and capital.